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A language is a standardized communication mechanism composed of sounds (spoken languages) or gestures used by humans (signed languages). Some languages have written representations of glyphs which encode the languages' sounds, syllables, gestures, or meanings, or combinations thereof. Linguistics is what the empirical study of language is called. In ancient Greece, questions concerning language theory, such as whether words should describe experience, have been discussed at least since Gorgias and Plato. Thinkers like Rousseau have suggested that language derives from thoughts, whereas others like Kant have proposed that it stems from objective and analytical reasoning.

Estimates of the world's number of human languages range from 5,000 to 7,000. Any reliable estimation, however, relies on the subjective distinction between languages and dialect (dichotomy). Natural languages are spoken or signed, but using audible, visual, or tactile stimuli, for example, in writing, whistling, signing, or braille, any language may be encoded into secondary media. This is because modality-independent is human language.

Ludwig Wittgenstein's psychological term, A language-game (German: Sprachspiel), refers to basic descriptions of language usage and the behavior into which the language is woven. Wittgenstein argued that only as a consequence of the "rule" of the "game" being played can a word or even a phrase have significance. For eg, the term "Water!" may be a command, the response to a question, or some other means of communication, depending on the context.

Ludwig Wittgenstein frequently alluded to the principle of language-games in his work Metaphysical Investigations (1953).[1] Wittgenstein dismissed the belief that language is somewhere distinct and corresponding to truth, and he argued that notions do not require sense consistency. The word "language-game" was used by Wittgenstein to designate language types that are simpler than the whole of a language itself, "consisting of language and the actions into which it is woven" (PI 7) and related by family similarity (Familienähnlichkeit).

A language game is a method of distortion of spoken words to make them nonsensical to the untrained ear (also called cant, hidden language, ludling, or argot). Language games are often used for communities who seek to shield their conversations from others. Pig Latin; the Gibberish family, widespread in the United States and Sweden; and Verlan, spoken in France, are some typical examples. A common problem with language games is that they are typically orally transmitted; although it is possible to make written translations, they are often inaccurate, so spelling can vary greatly.

For example, Pig Latin, Ubbi Dubbi, and Tutnese could all be in the "English" category, and Jeringonza could be in the "Spanish" ("Portuguese" or "Italian") category, one way in which language games could be arranged. By their purpose, an alternative way of classifying language games is. Ubbi Dubbi, Bicycle, and sv:Allspråket, for instance, all operate by adding a code syllable into each syllable before the vowel. Therefore, in the Gibberish family, these may be classified. Even, by adding a consonant after the vowel in each syllable, and then repeating the vowel, Double Talk, Língua do Pê, Jeringonza, and B-Sprache all operate.